Meditation for the 21st Century

Meditation for the 21st Century

Linji Yixuan- the original founder of the Rinzai School

Linji Yixuan- the original founder of the Rinzai School

I first learned meditation, sitting at the home of a Rinzai Zen Buddhist monk. He was a professor at the University I attended and held regular meditations at his home. He taught the way he was taught, which was the way his teacher was taught. I was given basic instruction on etiquette (e.g., taking shoes off before entire the zendo, bowing to the altar, etc.), and how to sit (e.g., cross-legged, eyes closed, spine straight, hands in the Dhyana mudra, etc.). We would chant specific sutras in Japanese and sit in silence for 45 minutes, followed by more chanting and bowing. There were no dharma talks, there was no discussion afterward. In fact, when I asked questions, I was usually told to, “sit more.” This style of teaching was directing us to the understanding that we would not find the answers we were seeking by talking about it. The only way to reach enlightenment was to sit in silence until the ego let go of control and there was a direct experience of The Truth.

I respect this tradition and I gained a lot from my time at the Zendo, and at the same time, it frequently struck me that there were never more than 3 people at any of the meditations. This was at a time when research into the benefits of meditation was exploding. We were discovering that meditation can rewire the brain, it can improve attention, it can alter the immune system response, and it can aid in the treatment of a vast array of mental health concerns. The virtues of meditation were being shared in many magazines and TV shows, yet only a small percentage of people were actually meditating. Why the disconnect? After interviewing hundreds of clients and students, the most common concerns preventing people from beginning a meditation practice included the following:

  • “I don’t know if I am doing it right”
  • “I can’t keep my mind quiet”
  • “I don’t have time”
  • “I don’t know where to start”
  • “I don’t feel comfortable going to a Buddhist center”
  • “I tried meditation once and it made me anxious”
The 4 styles of NeuroMeditation are Focus, Mindfulness, Quiet Mind, and Open Heart.

The 4 styles of NeuroMeditation are Focus, Mindfulness, Quiet Mind, and Open Heart.

To address these concerns we have changed the way meditation is taught. We now provide solutions to the concerns of beginning meditators including:

  • Tools: By using specific tips, strategies, and modern technologies, we can help students and clients achieve the meditative state they are seeking.
  • Woo Woo: Despite the science, some people continue to associate meditation with cults, hippies, or New Age ideas. We address this directly by showing the scientific evidence behind the practices of meditation as mental training. The skills taught are grounded in science and backed by research that shows their impact on the brain and improved wellness.
  • Efficiency: By identifying which meditation style fits with an individual’s needs and brainwave patterns we can help them achieve their goals more efficiently.
  • Secular: You don’t have to be a Buddhist or Hindu to meditate. In fact, you don’t have to believe in anything. We can teach these skills to anyone. In this process, meditation is not a spiritual practice, it is mental training.
  • Feedback: By incorporating body-based awareness and biofeedback technologies, students and clients can receive immediate feedback on their internal state, helping them become more aware of their process.
  • Trauma Informed: It is common for those individuals with a history of trauma to experience overwhelming thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations during meditation. To address this possibility, we provide modifications and choices within each meditation practice, allowing everyone to work in a way that feels safe and supportive.
  • Developmental Approach: Rather than asking clients and students to begin with a practice that is too challenging, we believe it is important to build a solid frame for the practice. We meet our students where they are at and over time help them advance to more complex and challenging meditative tasks that are appropriate to their needs, goals, and experience level.
  • Individualized: We respect and celebrate that everyone is unique . We emphasize the importance of students and clients learning about their needs, goals, and preferences while making decisions about their practice that is most likely to lead to success. Meditation is not a one-size-fits-all endeavor and should not be treated as such.


If you would like to learn more about NeuroMeditation or would like to find out your NeuroMeditation Style, check out our About Us, the NMSI, or our media page. If you want to begin the process of bringing this practice into your life, consider attending one of our upcoming workshops:

Meditation Interventions to Rewire the Brain

EEG NeuroMeditation Workshop

An Introduction to EEG NeuroMeditation

An Introduction to EEG NeuroMeditation

Meditation Works!

Over the past 20 years, researchers have demonstrated that a consistent practice of meditation can help with a whole host of concerns including cognitive skills, such as attention, reaction time, and memory; psychological/emotional difficulties, including anxiety, depression, and PTSD, as well as physical health concerns, such as pain management, sleep disorders, and migraine headaches. Despite this evidence, it remains a significant challenge for many individuals to maintain a consistent meditation practice.

An EEG NeuroMeditation session.

Early meditators often complain that they do not know if they are “doing it right” or give up before realizing any significant benefits. I have frequently heard clients and students ask, “how is sitting here doing nothing supposed to help with my problem”, or “I tried to meditate, but could not get my mind to be quiet!”  In response to these concerns, we have developed a system to clarify what meditation is (and isn’t) as well as powerful tools to assist the meditator in understanding and successfully maintaining a variety of meditative states. This methodology provides concrete information and brain-based science for the left brain and proven meditation practices for the right brain. This system provides tools, tips, and strategies to make learning meditation a more efficient and productive process. We think of it as Meditation for the 21st Century…

The most powerful tool used in the NeuroMeditation program involves combining meditation with EEG biofeedback (EEG NeuroMeditation). By tracking brainwave activity in specific regions of the brain, we can tell if the person is focused or relaxed. We can tell if the mind is wandering, if they are engaged in body-based emotional feelings, or if they have entered a space of internal quiet. By monitoring this activity and connecting it directly to the intent of the meditation, we can help meditators learn to quickly enter a desired state of consciousness and maintain this state for increasing periods of time.

One of the important lessons of the NeuroMeditation process involves the understanding that not all meditations are created equal. In an effort to clarify what is happening during meditation, we have defined 5 different styles of meditation based on the way attention is directed, the intention of the meditator, and which brainwaves and brain regions are involved.

The 5 styles of NeuroMeditation

Focus: voluntary control of attention and cognition. Good for improving focus, attention, executive functioning, and brain brightening.

Mindfulness: non-judgmental awareness of the present moment. Good for experiencing calm and distance from thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations. Ideal for stress and anxiety.

Open Heart: intentional activation of positive feeling states for self and others. This style helps to improve mood, become more empathic, loving, and kind.

Quiet Mind: spacious awareness. Ideal practice for learning to minimize internal self-talk and cultivating equanimity.

Deep States: Letting go, altered states of consciousness. Can be helpful in relaxing defense mechanisms and integrating subconscious material.

In the video below, you will see a demonstration of an EEG NeuroMeditation session during an Open Heart practice. During this practice, we are monitoring gamma activation in both the Anterior Cingulate and the Right Insula. When both of these brain regions show increased activation, this indicates that the meditator is focused (ACC) and activating a body-based emotional feeling (right Insula). Through the combination of feedback and meditation coaching, the meditator learns to recognize the desired internal state and to maintain that state for increasing periods of time.

Combining EEG Biofeedback with meditation has been very effective in helping to define and refine the meditation process, increasing motivation, interest, and impact for our clients and students. If you are interested in learning more about this work, please consider attending one of our upcoming EEG NeuroMeditation workshops:

Feb. 16-18, Corvallis, OR ($675; 24 CEU’s)

June 9-10, Cleveland, OH ($595; 14 CEU’s)

For More Information:

Visit us online on our website or Facebook, as well as follow us on Twitter! You can also read all about EEG NeuroMediation in Dr. Jeff Tarrant's Book.

Your Brainwaves as a Story Steering Wheel

Your Brainwaves as a Story Steering Wheel

The following is an editorial blog hosted from and written by Sarah Hill.

StoryUP releases 1st brain-computer interface title for GearVR

“Are those really my brainwaves?” People frequently ask me that question when we demo our Positivity app which works with a brain-computer interface, a mobile phone, and a VR headset. The new title set to release publicly on GearVR soon is powered by an input from your brain’s asymmetrical gamma activity. Only when I gently startle the user and they see the waves jump do they understand that their mind is indeed controlling the immersive story.

Even with diagnostic EEG at a hospital, rarely do you get the opportunity to watch your brainwaves react in real-time. In a VR headset, it’s mesmerizing. As the user watches their pattern move across the screen wearing a Muse meditation headband, it’s as if they’re seeing their neurological reflection for the first time. They aren’t just watching the experience. In a way, they’re feeling it.

A Woman prepares to demo “Positivity” at the Employer Healthcare Congress in LA wearing a Muse Meditation Headband

A Woman prepares to demo “Positivity” at the Employer Healthcare Congress in LA wearing a Muse Meditation Headband

BCI or brain-computer interfaces are not new. A UCLA Professor coined the term in a research paper in the 1970’s. Neuro-gaming’s first conference was held in San Francisco in 2013. However just like with VR headsets, the new lower form factor, ease of use, and portability of these devices that use EEG are enabling content creators like StoryUP to harness brain power to drive immersive experiences.

When the left frontal area of the brain is more active than the right, this is associated with feelings of positivity and optimism. It’s essentially a happiness trainer.— Dr. Jeff Tarrant, Psychologist, Neuromeditation Institute & StoryUP Co-Founder
Image from StoryUP’s Positivity App

Image from StoryUP’s Positivity App

In “Positivity”, the more the asymmetrical gamma activity reaches a certain level, the higher you float up the side of a beautiful waterfall. Our platform for positivity and other feelings like empathy and motivation is used in areas of situational, occupational, and workplace stress.

StoryUP started in 2014 as a way to help aging Veterans see their memorials. The Missouri company now has a library of experiences categorized by feelings. StoryUP’s “kits” are used in enterprise from sales teams to sailors aboard the USS Nimitz in the Pacific Ocean. The stories and affirmations span five continents. The positivity BCI project is a collaboration with the Neuromeditation Institute in Corvallis, OR, Everywoah in Spain, Immersion.reallife, and StoryUP in Columbia, MO. It’s the first mobile VR experience powered by a Muse, a meditation headband, and the first BCI title for GearVR. In three pilot studies, some of our experiences quieted brain regions associated with the stress response in as little as four minutes.

Muse Brain Sensing Headband

Muse Brain Sensing Headband

It used to be a brain-computer interface required messy gels, lots of sensors over your scalp, and a technician to set it up. Now an EEG strip attached to a headband is enabling users to navigate media with their minds. (Photo credit: Muse ) We’re NOT using these tools for diagnostics or to cure any medical condition. We’re using BCI as a storytelling input. Much as a computer mouse interacts with media, so too does what Facebook calls the “brain mouse”.

Facebook announced at F8 it’s built a brain mouse that can type 60 words a minute with someone’s thoughts. Companies are already working on neuro-computing operating systems that will allow you to navigate hands free right or left, click on media, or even scroll with your brainwaves. Way.


Soon, more VR headsets will have brainwave sensors baked into the face masks for the user to control the experience with their thoughts. Mind Maze(photo credit) is already advertising its headsets with built in sensors. Looxi Labs is already building a neural-analytics platform. Vive earlier this year announced a partnership with Neurable and released the first VR game to work with a BCI. The Mill released Strata this summer which works with an Oculus Rift and the user’s biometrics including heart rate.

Although this setup requires a gaming PC and for now a tethered connection, more and more neuro-media experiences like “Positivity” will be coming to mobile and standalone VR headsets. We’re excited to test drive all the different hardware with our brain-powered stories.

Human Media

At the end of “Positivity” if you make it back to the bottom of the waterfall, you’ll have the opportunity to watch a story about a group of aging Veterans who are no longer able to physically travel. They’re using VR to experience their memorials as their health won’t allow them to travel on in-person Honor Flights to Washington, DC.

As our interactions on social media become more negative, this new VR title is an attempt to become more self-aware of the power of positivity. Our thoughts have always had the ability to control environments ……not only in the virtual but the real world as well. If you have a VR headset, please consider spreading your own positivity by sharing your VR headset with an aging Veteran and donating to your local Honor Flight hub. Currently, there are +100 aging Veterans on a waiting list to virtually visit their memorials.

Trauma-Informed Meditation

Trauma-Informed Meditation


Many of us have experienced some level of trauma in our lifetime. Adverse events come in all shapes and sizes, and affect us to varying degrees. We are often left with a Protected Heart, creating barriers in our development. Yet, there are ways to engage in Open Heart practices effectively and carefully.

The typical instruction for meditation practices is to allow the experience to unfold without judgement or intervention, to observe without reaction, or to label experience and return to the target of attention or awareness. Often, various forms of body sensing or breath focus are included. In group classes, students are directed to stay with sensation, discomfort, or emotional distress, often for extended periods of time. These situations commonly occur in yoga classes, as well.

For individuals who have experienced traumatic or overwhelming life events, this kind of instruction often contributes to overwhelming affect and bodily sensations. Trauma survivors may decide that they are not capable of meditation, or that it’s “not right for them.” It’s important to understand that traumatic experiences can significantly affect our perceptions and our sense of self, and can sensitize us to sensations, thoughts, and emotions. Fortunately, there are helpful ways to ensure that meditation instruction is trauma-informed, with an emphasis on grounding and physical and emotional security.

If you become overwhelmed with emotions, sensations, or images, please consider:

Opening your eyes, looking around the room
If lying down, sit up. If sitting, consider standing
Use grounding skills
Move in place (stretch arms, realign seated position, stretch neck and head, press palms together firmly over heart center, open the chest area for strong breathing).
Get up and quietly walk around
Leave the room
The most important thing is discernment, or clearly sensing your needs with regard to overwhelming affect, thought, or sensation. If you are overwhelmed, then it’s ok to take a break. Supporting the body and mind in the practices strengthens our ability to engage in meditation. If you are struggling, use that as information and respond with intention and compassion.

*Note that these modifications may also be useful at an early developmental stage in meditation, or those coping with severe current life stressors.

Discover how to increase the power of meditation and mindfulness in your clinical practice!


Learn more about NeuroMeditation from Jeff Tarrant, Ph.D., BCIA-EEG,BCN, by visiting his website.

Or read more about the various forms of NeuroMediation Here!

The Focus Style of NeuroMeditation

Focus NeuroMeditation

Based on the intention of the meditator, the way attention is directed and brain activation/deactivation patterns, we can identify 4 distinct styles of meditation practice: Focus, Mindfulness, Open Heart and Quiet Mind.

The Focus style represents a constellation of practices where the attention is directed toward a single object such as the breath, a mantra, or an image of a deity. The most common way to practice this style is to direct the attention toward some aspect of the breath. It might be the expansion of the belly with each inbreath and the contraction with each outbreath; or perhaps the attention is focused on the sensation of warm air flowing out of the nostrils with each exhalation and cool air flowing into the nostrils on each inhalation. In any case, the mind typically can only maintain attention on such a task for a few seconds and then it becomes bored or distracted. The mind starts looking for something a bit more interesting. The mind may begin remembering something that happened last night or this morning, or the mind may become engaged in planning or judging or story-telling or any number of automatic cognitive processes. This mind wandering is a natural part of the way the human mind works. During Focus forms of NeuroMeditation, when the mind wanders, the task is to become aware of this as soon as possible and gently, patiently and kindly usher the attention back to the original target.

While it may sound simple, this practice is very powerful and serves as an important foundation for other styles of NeuroMeditation. Focus practices help the mind develop a stability of attention necessary for other practices. The Focus style is also ideal for anyone wanting to train their mind to be more focused and less distracted-in essence to have more control over the mind and its activities. 

Focus Neuromeditation

The Brain on Focus NeuroMeditation

There are two primary brain regions involved in Focus NeuroMeditation, the Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) and the Default Mode Network (DMN).  The ACC sits in the frontal lobes and connects the cortex of the brain to the more primitive, emotion based centers of the limbic system. The ACC is involved in a variety of cognitive tasks including sustaining and directing attention as well as becoming aware of mind wandering. The DMN is a network of brain regions that are most active when a person is thinking about something in reference to themselves-this is our default mode.  It is where your mind goes when it is not otherwise occupied. In this way, activation of the DMN is often associated with mind wandering. So, Focus styles of NeuroMeditation involve activation of the ACC (when you are focused), alternating with activation of the DMN (when your mind is wandering).

EEG NeuroMeditation

Through the use of EEG monitoring and neurofeedback, we can measure the brain patterns associated with Focus NeuroMediation in real time and provide auditory feedback signals to a meditator when their brain is on the right track.  This neurofeedback-based approach to meditation (EEG NeuroMeditation) becomes a powerful tool for guiding and assisting the meditation process; essentially helping meditators learn what it feels like to meditate and how to get there more rapidly.

Providing EEG NeuroMeditation requires that the practitioner has a solid background in neurofeedback, but also the skills to coach someone in meditation practices. In the EEG NeuroMeditation workshops sponsored by Stress Therapy Solutions, we teach the theory, science, methods and protocols behind the 4 styles as well specific skills, tools and techniques to facilitate this process with clients. If you are interested in learning how to use neurofeedback with meditation, check our upcoming events for the next 2 day training. You can also check out Dr. Tarrant’s chapter, “Introduction to NeuroMeditation” in the, Handbook of Clinical Qeeg and Neurotherapy.

Because NeuroMeditation is essentially a brain-based approach to meditation, it can be practiced individually or in groups without the use of EEG or neurofeedback equipment.

What is NeuroMeditation?

NeuroMeditation Institute Logo

With the development of the NeuroMeditation Institute (NMI), and the launching of the NMI certification program, it seemed important to clarify what NeuroMeditation is. It is not a single thing. It is a process, a system, and a set of therapeutic interventions. This series will explore the term and the ways we are using it help people become more of their ideal self.

NeuroMeditation is the application of brain based principles to meditation practices.

There are hundreds, perhaps thousands of different forms of meditation out there, each with their own specific traditions and practices. There are meditation practices, such as Transcendental Meditation (TM), where you are learning to let go and empty the mind, allowing the mind to sink into a space of restful awareness.  There are concentration practices that ask the practitioner to focus their attention on their breath or an image of the Buddha or a specific word or phrase; gently returning the mind to the target each time it wanders. There are still other practices such as Taiji Chuan that involve a pattern of choreographed movements and a focus on continually “sinking the energy” and “moving like water.” All of these can be considered forms of meditation, yet each is quite different. Because there are so many styles and traditions and there is so much information available about these practices, it is a bit overwhelming. This overload of information makes it very challenging for someone to know where to begin or which meditation practices might be best suited for their specific needs.

Based on the way attention is directed, based on our intention during the practice and based on the way it impacts the brain, all meditations generally fall into one (or more) of 4 categories: Focus, Mindfulness, Quiet Mind and Open Heart.

NMI Styles Breakdown

Focus Meditation: Voluntary control of attention and cognitive processes. This style might be best for you if you want to improve your focus and concentration and reduce your mind wandering.

Mindfulness Meditation: Dispassionate, non-evaluative awareness of ongoing experience. You might choose to practice this style if you want to get better at letting things go and reducing internal judgment.

Quiet Mind Meditation: Automatic transcending of the procedures of the meditation practice that leads to an open awareness. This practice is ideal if you are interested in minimizing internal self-talk and learning to achieve a state of restful awareness.

Open Heart Meditation: Activation of positive emotional states (e.g., love, compassion, peace) along with an unrestricted readiness to help all living beings. Meditations in this category are ideal for increasing empathy, generosity and perspective taking.

By understanding the differences between meditation styles, you can choose a style of meditation practice to match your goals.

NeurMediation Styles Inventory

Take the NeuroMeditation Styles Inventory to find out which style is the best fit for you!

Stay tuned for Part II, where we will explore NeuroMeditation as a set of brain-based tools for specific mental health concerns including ADHD, anxiety, depression and “disorders of the self.”

Your Brain on VR: Mindfulness in Nature

Your Brain on VR: Mindfulness in Nature

Mindfulness in Nature

Popular articles that discuss brainwaves in relation to states of consciousness often simplify matters by indicating that there are four types of brain waves: Delta, Theta, Alpha and Beta.  Delta, Theta and Alpha can all be considered “slow” brainwaves.  When they are dominant, the brain is often in a more relaxed or quiet state.  Beta and brainwaves faster than beta, such as high beta or gamma, can be considered “fast” brainwaves.  When these are dominant, the brain is active and engaged.

We need these brainwaves to be flexible and fluid, shifting and changing with whatever task we give our brain.  For example, when it is time to rest we expect slow brainwaves to increase and fast brainwaves to decrease.  When we are balancing the checkbook or making an important decision, we expect the opposite pattern.

By measuring brainwaves before and after a specific task or experience, we can get a picture of how the brain was impacted; did it become more alert and aroused or more relaxed and quiet?

We wanted to know how the brain responds when someone engages in a virtual reality meditation, so we used quantitative EEG technology to tell us.

First we oriented our volunteer subject to Virtual Reality by having them watch 2 different StoryUp immersive stories. After the orientation we obtained a baseline measurement of their brainwaves using a 19 channel EEG system.  The volunteer then participated in a 4 minute mindfulness in nature experience after which we measured the brainwaves one more time.

Overall, the results showed a significant quieting of the brain after experiencing the brief VR meditation, measured by decreases in fast activity (gamma) and increases in slow activity (theta and alpha). This, by itself, was impressive given the relatively brief exposure to the meditation.  Perhaps more importantly, an analysis of specific brain regions impacted by the VR meditation showed that areas of the brain involved in the stress response were some of the most significantly impacted.

Below are 3D brain images showing changes in the brain after the VR meditation. Cooler colors (blues) indicate that the activity measured has decreased whereas brighter colors (yellow, orange, red) indicate that activity has increased.

The first picture is looking at fast brainwave activity (gamma) in the anterior cingulate.  Blue colors indicate that gamma activity decreased significantly during the meditation.  This is important because this part of the brain often becomes overactivated during stress and anxiety or when we become fixated on thoughts, feelings or behaviors. By helping this area to relax, the brain is shifting into a more relaxed, peaceful state.

Mindfulness in Nature

In the next image, we switch from examining fast brainwaves to looking at slow brainwaves. In particular, we are looking at alpha activity in the Precuneus.  This part of the brain is the hub of the brain’s Default Mode Network (DMN).  When the DMN is quieter, as seen here, this suggests that the person is not thinking about themselves (or their worries) as much, which is exactly what we would hope to see during this experience.

Mindfulness in Nature

These results provide preliminary evidence that this type of technology can have a nearly immediate impact on the stress response. We are in the process of developing a range of VR meditations with different environments, lengths and guided instructions to help people manage stress, improve their sleep and reduce pain.

The Brain of a Qigong Master

The Brain of a Qigong Master

My primary Qigong teacher has been Master Ken Cohen. He has more than 45 years experience in a variety of healing arts and recently allowed me to measure his brainwave activity during two different healing practices and the results were very interesting.

First we examined how his brainwave activity changed when he was engaged in a Qigong energy healing technique with a patient sitting and lying on a massage table. Ken stood near the client and performed a variety of energy healing techniques that he identified as being a relatively general cleansing and wellness protocol. Ken wore an electrocap fitted with 19 electrodes. His brainwave activity was measured first in a baseline condition, simply standing with his eyes open doing nothing. Next his brainwave activity was recorded during the healing session. After the data were cleaned to remove any artifacts from movement the two recordings were compared.

The Brain of a Qigong Master

The brain images below are showing the percent of change in each brainwave (delta-high gamma) comparing healing with baseline. The key below each head map indicates the range of change. For example, the graph under the gamma head map ranges from -73 to +73. This means that anywhere the gamma head map shows colors at the extreme (red or deep blue) there is up to a 73% difference in brainwave activity in those regions.

The Brain of a Qigong Master

Clearly, the largest changes that occurred during an external qi healing related to increases in fast brainwave activity (high beta, gamma and high gamma) in left prefrontal regions and occipital regions. Interstingly, increased gamma in the left prefrontal regions has been seen in Tibetan monks engaged in a lovingkindness/compassion meditation. It is also associated with an approach orientation toward others and a positive outlook. The huge increase in occipital activation suggests visual processing. It makes sense that these areas may be involved while the healer “sees” the areas of the energy body in need of healing or visualizing healing energy moving into the body.

Ken Cohen (Gao Han) is the Executive Director and founder of the Qigong Research & Practice Center. He is a world-renowned health educator, China scholar, and Qigong GrandMaster with more than forty-five years experience. A former collaborator with Alan Watts, he is the author of the internationally acclaimed book The Way of Qigong: The Art and Science of Chinese Energy Healing (Ballantine), best-selling self-healing audio and video courses (Sounds True), and more than 200 journal articles. In 2003 Ken Cohen won the leading international award in energy medicine, the Alyce and Elmer Green Award for Innovation and Lifetime Achievement.

NeuroMeditation for ADHD, Anxiety, Depression, and More…..

NeuroMeditation for ADHD, Anxiety, Depression, and More…..

NeuroMeditation for ADHD, Anxiety and Depression

Despite the obvious appeal and increased accessibility of meditation training with programs such as mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), it remains a significant challenge for many individuals to maintain a consistent practice. Early meditators often complain that they do not know if they are “doing it right” or give up before realizing any significant benefits. By providing the meditator with immediate feedback on their brainwave state, a neurotherapist can help define and refine the process, potentially increasing motivation, interest and impact.

Research examining the role of attention, intention, brainwave states and brain regions involved has shown that there are basically four different types of meditation practices; these include Focused Attention, Open Monitoring, Automatic Self-Transcending and Loving-Kindness/Compassion. Each of these styles of meditation impact the brain in different ways, making each an ideal match for specific mental health concerns. Focused Attention or concentration practices provide the exact type of brain training needed for ADHD and concerns of focus and distractibility. Open Monitoring practices, such as mindfulness meditation affect the brain in ways that make it perfectly suited for managing stress and anxiety. Automatic Self Transcending is similar to an Open Focus approach and is helpful for quieting down the overactive self-referencing that is so common with personality disorders and addictions. Loving-kindness and compassion practices change the brain in ways that can have a significant impact on depression or mood concerns.

YouTube video of my talk: Intro to NeuroMeditation

By combining these specific meditations with neurofeedback protocols it is possible to target the brain waves and brain regions that are consistent with these meditations, helping the client to more easily and consistently achieve the desired state of consciousness. For example, an Open Monitoring neuromeditation session might involve connecting sensors to two or more locations on the clients scalp which monitor brainwave activity. One sensor might focus on theta activity in the frontal lobes (anterior cingulate gyrus), providing a pleasant tone when this activity increases. Another sensor might monitor alpha activity in the back of the brain (Precuneus) and offer a second tone when the brain decreases alpha activity. When both of these tones are present, the person is very likely to be in a state of “observing the self.” The client can sit with their eyes closed, engaged in a mindfulness meditation, quietly and nonjudgmentally watching every thought, bodily sensation and emotional reaction that passes through consciousness. This practice leads to a healthy detachment to the difficulties caused by our over analytic, obsessive and worrying thoughts, allowing relief from stress and anxiety.

Using brainwave feedback to provide a reward signal for increases in frontal theta activation, one of my neuromeditation clients described the experience like this:

“This protocol, or at least the way I was approaching the session led to a very mellow, pleasant state of mind. Very calming, slow and relaxed. I just let go of any thoughts and don’t try to force anything to happen or to not happen. I seemed to receive the reward when I was a little bit more focused rather than so easygoing as my typical meditation is, or as I would like it to be. I came out of this session not wanting it to end nor wanting to speak or verbalize my experience.”

A session review graph, after a period to allow for adjustment to the protocol, clearly shows a gradual increase in FM theta at ACC and a reduction of alpha in the Precuneus.

ACC Theta and Precuneus Alpha during an OM Neuromeditation session.

ACC Theta and Precuneus Alpha during an OM Neuromeditation session.

Neuromeditation has become my “go to” intervention for any clients wanting the benefit of neurofeedback, but also wanting to develop skills that can be practiced at home. The combination of these ancient and modern technologies enhances both and promises to be a powerful tool for improved psychological and emotional wellness.

Qigong for Health and Well-Being

Qigong for Health and Well-Being

Qigong is a system of slow movements, breathing techniques and meditations.  This is an ancient Chinese practice that is used to accumulate, cleanse, and refine our life force.  Qi is the Chinese word for “life energy.”  Gong means “work.”  Thus, Qigong means working with the life energy, learning how to control the flow and distribution of qi to improve the health and harmony of mind and body.  By learning to feel and self-regulate the flow of qi, one can relax and let go of stress and worry, promoting balance.

Qigong was originally a Taoist practice used to assist in spiritual development.  By working with the internal energy, a Taoist practitioner would refine their base energy into more and more subtle levels of energy, allowing them to move past cravings and attachments and live in flow with the natural rhythms of the Universe.

Forms of Qigong were later developed that focus on physical health.  These are the most common forms taught in the United States and include 5 element Qigong, Healing Sounds, Bone Marrow Cleansing, Primordial, Yi Quan and Coiling Silk.  These forms are generally concerned with cleansing, purifying and circulating healthy Qi throughout the energy body.  These exercises are designed to break up stagnation and create healthy movement in the meridians and energy centers (dan tians) of the energy body.  In this way, Qigong is often referred to as acupuncture without needles.

YouTube of my Qigong video 5 element Qigong:

Finally, Qigong can be used as a martial art application, the most common of which is Taiji Quan or Tai Chi.  While it may not look like a martial art at first glance, every movement in these systems have martial art applications.  When these systems are performed with correct form and intent they are much more than a dance and become a healing practice that improves balance, coordination and timing.

Research has shown that Qigong and Tai Chi participation reduces blood pressure, increases maximum oxygen consumption, increases immune function, and improves flexibility, posture and balance.  The meditative and breathing practice aspects of Qigong and Tai Chi programs have been shown to reduce stress, anxiety, and depression.

The Mind of the Medium: The Art and Science of Psychic Mediumship

The Mind of the Medium: The Art and Science of Psychic Mediumship

The Mind of the Medium

Mediums are individuals that claim to have the ability to communicate with the spirits of the departed.  The popularity of television programs featuring Mediums such as “The Long Island Medium” and “The Haunting of…” clearly shows that American interest in this topic has not slowed down.  Unfortunately, the scientific community has largely dismissed Mediums as charlatans preying on grieving family members.  This viewpoint assumes that the abilities that are claimed are impossible.  Any information shared by a Medium that seems accurate are merely good guesses achieved through “cold reading” techniques.

Granted, there are many people out there claiming to have Mediumship abilities that are charlatans and do use cold reading techniques. And, there are others.

For the past 2 1/2 years I have been mapping the brains of Mediums and psychics while they engage in their skill.  During these experiments I have seen some incredibly accurate readings from Mediums that were careful NOT to gain any information from the sitter (the person receiving the reading).  The Mediums I have worked with have all been certified by one or more of the organizations that test Mediums (Veritas, Windbridge, Forever Family Foundation).  These organizations go to great lengths to test the accuracy of the Medium readings, including utilizing a quadruple blind method which removes the Medium several steps away from the sitter.  These Mediums consistently show unusual brainwave activity when they are engaged in their practice.  Many of them show activity that looks like seizure activity, or tremendous increases of slow brain activity in specific regions.  Another semi-consistent pattern relates to significant increases in fast activity in the back of the head-the areas of the brain associated with visual processing.

The Mind of the Medium

While this work is still preliminary and does not necessarily “prove” that Mediums are communicating with the dead, it does strongly suggest that Mediums are entering a very different state of consciousness when they are engaged in their work.  They do not simply appear to be faking-something interesting is definitely going on!